Bootstarp 4 入门之Bootstrap 表单 forms

表单

用于创建各种表单的表单控件样式,布局选项和自定义组件的示例和使用指南。

基本使用

描述

<form>
  <div class="form-group">
    <label for="exampleInputEmail1">Email address</label>
    <input type="email" class="form-control" id="exampleInputEmail1" aria-describedby="emailHelp">
    <small id="emailHelp" class="form-text text-muted">We'll never share your email with anyone else.</small>
  </div>
  <div class="form-group">
    <label for="exampleInputPassword1">Password</label>
    <input type="password" class="form-control" id="exampleInputPassword1">
  </div>
  <div class="form-group form-check">
    <input type="checkbox" class="form-check-input" id="exampleCheck1">
    <label class="form-check-label" for="exampleCheck1">Check me out</label>
  </div>
  <button type="submit" class="btn btn-primary">Submit</button>
</form>

样式解析

.form-group {
    margin-bottom: 1rem;
}
.form-control {
    display: block;
    width: 100%;
    height: calc(1.5em + .75rem + 2px);
    padding: .375rem .75rem;
    font-size: 1rem;
    font-weight: 400;
    line-height: 1.5;
    color: #495057;
    background-color: #fff;
    background-clip: padding-box;
    border: 1px solid #ced4da;
    border-radius: .25rem;
    transition: border-color .15s ease-in-out,box-shadow .15s ease-in-out;
}
.form-text {
    display: block;
    margin-top: .25rem;
    }

表单控制

文本形式控制元件 (如 <input>, <select><textarea>)使用.form-control 进行样式化。包括一般外观、focus 状态、尺寸等等的样式。

file 元素

<form>
  <div class="form-group">
    <label for="exampleFormControlFile1">Example file input</label>
    <input type="file" class="form-control-file" id="exampleFormControlFile1">
  </div>
</form>
.form-control-file, .form-control-range {
    display: block;
    width: 100%;
}

使用 .form-control-lg.form-control-sm设置高度。

描述

只读 readonly

<input class="form-control" type="text" placeholder="Readonly input here..." readonly>

只读纯文本,form-control-plaintext 该类删除默认表单字段样式

描述

form-control-plaintext {
    display: block;
    width: 100%;
    padding: .375rem 0;
    margin-bottom: 0;
    font-size: 1rem;
    line-height: 1.5;
    color: #212529;
    background-color: transparent;
    border: solid transparent;
    border-width: 1px 0;
}

范围输入 .form-control-range

描述

<form>
  <div class="form-group">
    <label for="formControlRange">Example Range input</label>
    <input type="range" class="form-control-range" id="formControlRange">
  </div>
</form>

复选框、单选按钮 ,通过绝对定位完成

描述

<div class="form-check">
  <input class="form-check-input" type="checkbox" value="" id="defaultCheck1">
  <label class="form-check-label" for="defaultCheck1">
    Default checkbox
  </label>
</div>
.form-check {
    position: relative;
    display: block;
    padding-left: 1.25rem;
}

input[type=checkbox], input[type=radio] {
    box-sizing: border-box;
    padding: 0;
}
.form-check-input {
    position: absolute;
    margin-top: .3rem;
    margin-left: -1.25rem;
}
form-check-label {
    margin-bottom: 0;
}

描述

<div class="form-check">
  <input class="form-check-input" type="radio" name="exampleRadios" id="exampleRadios1" value="option1" checked>
  <label class="form-check-label" for="exampleRadios1">
    Default radio
  </label>
</div>
<div class="form-check">
  <input class="form-check-input" type="radio" name="exampleRadios" id="exampleRadios2" value="option2">
  <label class="form-check-label" for="exampleRadios2">
    Second default radio
  </label>
</div>
<div class="form-check">
  <input class="form-check-input" type="radio" name="exampleRadios" id="exampleRadios3" value="option3" disabled>
  <label class="form-check-label" for="exampleRadios3">
    Disabled radio
  </label>
</div>

如果水平,需要用到form-check-inline

<div class="form-check form-check-inline">
  <input class="form-check-input" type="checkbox" id="inlineCheckbox1" value="option1">
  <label class="form-check-label" for="inlineCheckbox1">1</label>
</div>

排版布局

表格网格 利用了row来完成布局

描述

<form>
  <div class="row">
    <div class="col">
      <input type="text" class="form-control" placeholder="First name">
    </div>
    <div class="col">
      <input type="text" class="form-control" placeholder="Last name">
    </div>
  </div>
</form>

表格行

您也可以互换.row的.form-row,覆盖缺省列排水沟更严格和更紧凑的布局,我们的标准网格行的变化。
描述

<form>
  <div class="form-row">
    <div class="col">
      <input type="text" class="form-control" placeholder="First name">
    </div>
    <div class="col">
      <input type="text" class="form-control" placeholder="Last name">
    </div>
  </div>
</form>

默认下col是左右边距15px

.form-row>.col, .form-row>[class*=col-] {
    padding-right: 5px;
    padding-left: 5px;
}

水平

通过将.row类添加到表单组并使用这些.col--类来指定标签和控件的宽度,可以使用网格创建水平表单。请务必同时添加,.col-form-label<label>使它们与相关的表单控件垂直居中
描述

<form>
  <div class="form-group row">
    <label for="inputEmail3" class="col-sm-2 col-form-label">Email</label>
    <div class="col-sm-10">
      <input type="email" class="form-control" id="inputEmail3">
    </div>
  </div>
  <div class="form-group row">
    <label for="inputPassword3" class="col-sm-2 col-form-label">Password</label>
    <div class="col-sm-10">
      <input type="password" class="form-control" id="inputPassword3">
    </div>
  </div>
  <fieldset class="form-group">
    <div class="row">
      <legend class="col-form-label col-sm-2 pt-0">Radios</legend>
      <div class="col-sm-10">
        <div class="form-check">
          <input class="form-check-input" type="radio" name="gridRadios" id="gridRadios1" value="option1" checked>
          <label class="form-check-label" for="gridRadios1">
            First radio
          </label>
        </div>
        <div class="form-check">
          <input class="form-check-input" type="radio" name="gridRadios" id="gridRadios2" value="option2">
          <label class="form-check-label" for="gridRadios2">
            Second radio
          </label>
        </div>
        <div class="form-check disabled">
          <input class="form-check-input" type="radio" name="gridRadios" id="gridRadios3" value="option3" disabled>
          <label class="form-check-label" for="gridRadios3">
            Third disabled radio
          </label>
        </div>
      </div>
    </div>
  </fieldset>
  <div class="form-group row">
    <div class="col-sm-2">Checkbox</div>
    <div class="col-sm-10">
      <div class="form-check">
        <input class="form-check-input" type="checkbox" id="gridCheck1">
        <label class="form-check-label" for="gridCheck1">
          Example checkbox
        </label>
      </div>
    </div>
  </div>
  <div class="form-group row">
    <div class="col-sm-10">
      <button type="submit" class="btn btn-primary">Sign in</button>
    </div>
  </div>
</form>

水平表单标签大小 .col-form-label-sm,.col-form-label-lg ,.form-control-lg,.form-control-sm
描述

<form>
  <div class="form-group row">
    <label for="colFormLabelSm" class="col-sm-2 col-form-label col-form-label-sm">Email</label>
    <div class="col-sm-10">
      <input type="email" class="form-control form-control-sm" id="colFormLabelSm" placeholder="col-form-label-sm">
    </div>
  </div>
  <div class="form-group row">
    <label for="colFormLabel" class="col-sm-2 col-form-label">Email</label>
    <div class="col-sm-10">
      <input type="email" class="form-control" id="colFormLabel" placeholder="col-form-label">
    </div>
  </div>
  <div class="form-group row">
    <label for="colFormLabelLg" class="col-sm-2 col-form-label col-form-label-lg">Email</label>
    <div class="col-sm-10">
      <input type="email" class="form-control form-control-lg" id="colFormLabelLg" placeholder="col-form-label-lg">
    </div>
  </div>
</form>
.form-control-sm {
    height: calc(1.5em + .5rem + 2px);
    padding: .25rem .5rem;
    font-size: .875rem;
    line-height: 1.5;
    border-radius: .2rem;
}
.col-form-label-sm {
    padding-top: calc(.25rem + 1px);
    padding-bottom: calc(.25rem + 1px);
    font-size: .875rem;
    line-height: 1.5;
}

列大小

.col在.row或内放置任意数量的.form-row
描述

<form>
  <div class="form-row">
    <div class="col-7">
      <input type="text" class="form-control" placeholder="City">
    </div>
    <div class="col">
      <input type="text" class="form-control" placeholder="State">
    </div>
    <div class="col">
      <input type="text" class="form-control" placeholder="Zip">
    </div>
  </div>
</form>

自动调整大小

将内容垂直居中并更改.col为,.col-auto以便您的列仅占用所需的空间

描述

<form>
  <div class="form-row align-items-center">
    <div class="col-auto">
      <label class="sr-only" for="inlineFormInput">Name</label>
      <input type="text" class="form-control mb-2" id="inlineFormInput" placeholder="Jane Doe">
    </div>
    <div class="col-auto">
      <label class="sr-only" for="inlineFormInputGroup">Username</label>
      <div class="input-group mb-2">
        <div class="input-group-prepend">
          <div class="input-group-text">@</div>
        </div>
        <input type="text" class="form-control" id="inlineFormInputGroup" placeholder="Username">
      </div>
    </div>
    <div class="col-auto">
      <div class="form-check mb-2">
        <input class="form-check-input" type="checkbox" id="autoSizingCheck">
        <label class="form-check-label" for="autoSizingCheck">
          Remember me
        </label>
      </div>
    </div>
    <div class="col-auto">
      <button type="submit" class="btn btn-primary mb-2">Submit</button>
    </div>
  </div>
</form>

内联.form-inline

.form-inline {
    display: -ms-flexbox;
    display: flex;
    -ms-flex-flow: row wrap;
    flex-flow: row wrap;
    -ms-flex-align: center;
    align-items: center;
}

描述

<form class="form-inline">
  <label class="sr-only" for="inlineFormInputName2">Name</label>
  <input type="text" class="form-control mb-2 mr-sm-2" id="inlineFormInputName2" placeholder="Jane Doe">

  <label class="sr-only" for="inlineFormInputGroupUsername2">Username</label>
  <div class="input-group mb-2 mr-sm-2">
    <div class="input-group-prepend">
      <div class="input-group-text">@</div>
    </div>
    <input type="text" class="form-control" id="inlineFormInputGroupUsername2" placeholder="Username">
  </div>

  <div class="form-check mb-2 mr-sm-2">
    <input class="form-check-input" type="checkbox" id="inlineFormCheck">
    <label class="form-check-label" for="inlineFormCheck">
      Remember me
    </label>
  </div>

  <button type="submit" class="btn btn-primary mb-2">Submit</button>
</form>

帮助文字.form-text

描述

<label for="inputPassword5">Password</label>
<input type="password" id="inputPassword5" class="form-control" aria-describedby="passwordHelpBlock">
<small id="passwordHelpBlock" class="form-text text-muted">
  Your password must be 8-20 characters long, contain letters and numbers, and must not contain spaces, special characters, or emoji.
</small>
.form-text {
    display: block;
    margin-top: .25rem;
}

禁用

disabled在输入上添加布尔属性,以防止用户交互并使它看起来更浅
描述

<form>
  <fieldset disabled>
    <div class="form-group">
      <label for="disabledTextInput">Disabled input</label>
      <input type="text" id="disabledTextInput" class="form-control" placeholder="Disabled input">
    </div>
    <div class="form-group">
      <label for="disabledSelect">Disabled select menu</label>
      <select id="disabledSelect" class="form-control">
        <option>Disabled select</option>
      </select>
    </div>
    <div class="form-group">
      <div class="form-check">
        <input class="form-check-input" type="checkbox" id="disabledFieldsetCheck" disabled>
        <label class="form-check-label" for="disabledFieldsetCheck">
          Can't check this
        </label>
      </div>
    </div>
    <button type="submit" class="btn btn-primary">Submit</button>
  </fieldset>
</form>

验证表单提示

则可以使用 is-invalid 无效”和.is-valid 有效
描述

<form>
  <div class="form-row">
    <div class="col-md-4 mb-3">
      <label for="validationServer01">First name</label>
      <input type="text" class="form-control is-valid" id="validationServer01" value="Mark" required>
      <div class="valid-feedback">
        Looks good!
      </div>
    </div>
    <div class="col-md-4 mb-3">
      <label for="validationServer02">Last name</label>
      <input type="text" class="form-control is-valid" id="validationServer02" value="Otto" required>
      <div class="valid-feedback">
        Looks good!
      </div>
    </div>
    <div class="col-md-4 mb-3">
      <label for="validationServerUsername">Username</label>
      <div class="input-group">
        <div class="input-group-prepend">
          <span class="input-group-text" id="inputGroupPrepend3">@</span>
        </div>
        <input type="text" class="form-control is-invalid" id="validationServerUsername" aria-describedby="inputGroupPrepend3" required>
        <div class="invalid-feedback">
          Please choose a username.
        </div>
      </div>
    </div>
  </div>
  <div class="form-row">
    <div class="col-md-6 mb-3">
      <label for="validationServer03">City</label>
      <input type="text" class="form-control is-invalid" id="validationServer03" required>
      <div class="invalid-feedback">
        Please provide a valid city.
      </div>
    </div>
    <div class="col-md-3 mb-3">
      <label for="validationServer04">State</label>
      <select class="custom-select is-invalid" id="validationServer04" required>
        <option selected disabled value="">Choose...</option>
        <option>...</option>
      </select>
      <div class="invalid-feedback">
        Please select a valid state.
      </div>
    </div>
    <div class="col-md-3 mb-3">
      <label for="validationServer05">Zip</label>
      <input type="text" class="form-control is-invalid" id="validationServer05" required>
      <div class="invalid-feedback">
        Please provide a valid zip.
      </div>
    </div>
  </div>
  <div class="form-group">
    <div class="form-check">
      <input class="form-check-input is-invalid" type="checkbox" value="" id="invalidCheck3" required>
      <label class="form-check-label" for="invalidCheck3">
        Agree to terms and conditions
      </label>
      <div class="invalid-feedback">
        You must agree before submitting.
      </div>
    </div>
  </div>
  <button class="btn btn-primary" type="submit">Submit form</button>
</form>
form-control.is-valid, .was-validated .form-control:valid {
    border-color: #28a745;
    padding-right: calc(1.5em + .75rem);
    background-image: url(data:image/svg+xml,%3csvg xmlns='http://www.w3.org/2000/svg' width='8' heig… 1.4 3.4-3.8c.6-.63 1.6-.27 1.2.7l-4 4.6c-.43.5-.8.4-1.1.1z'/%3e%3c/svg%3e);
    background-repeat: no-repeat;
    background-position: right calc(.375em + .1875rem) center;
    background-size: calc(.75em + .375rem) calc(.75em + .375rem);
}
.valid-feedback {
    display: none;
    width: 100%;
    margin-top: .25rem;
    font-size: 80%;
    color: #28a745;
}

以上支持如下元素

  • <input>
  • <textarea>
  • <select>
  • .custom-file
  • .custom-checkboxs
  • .custom-radios
  • .form-control
  • .custom-select

提示验证

如果你的排版允许,可以使用.{valid|invalid}-tooltip 来替换.{valid|invalid}-feedback,在样式,使用风格化的提示来显示表单的错误回馈,确保父元素有一个position: relative 作为题式的定位,在以下的范例中 col 已经包含 relative,在你的专案上也需要做类似的设定
描述

<form class="needs-validation" novalidate>
  <div class="form-row">
    <div class="col-md-4 mb-3">
      <label for="validationTooltip01">First name</label>
      <input type="text" class="form-control" id="validationTooltip01" value="Mark" required>
      <div class="valid-tooltip">
        Looks good!
      </div>
    </div>
    <div class="col-md-4 mb-3">
      <label for="validationTooltip02">Last name</label>
      <input type="text" class="form-control" id="validationTooltip02" value="Otto" required>
      <div class="valid-tooltip">
        Looks good!
      </div>
    </div>
    <div class="col-md-4 mb-3">
      <label for="validationTooltipUsername">Username</label>
      <div class="input-group">
        <div class="input-group-prepend">
          <span class="input-group-text" id="validationTooltipUsernamePrepend">@</span>
        </div>
        <input type="text" class="form-control" id="validationTooltipUsername" aria-describedby="validationTooltipUsernamePrepend" required>
        <div class="invalid-tooltip">
          Please choose a unique and valid username.
        </div>
      </div>
    </div>
  </div>
  <div class="form-row">
    <div class="col-md-6 mb-3">
      <label for="validationTooltip03">City</label>
      <input type="text" class="form-control" id="validationTooltip03" required>
      <div class="invalid-tooltip">
        Please provide a valid city.
      </div>
    </div>
    <div class="col-md-3 mb-3">
      <label for="validationTooltip04">State</label>
      <select class="custom-select" id="validationTooltip04" required>
        <option selected disabled value="">Choose...</option>
        <option>...</option>
      </select>
      <div class="invalid-tooltip">
        Please select a valid state.
      </div>
    </div>
    <div class="col-md-3 mb-3">
      <label for="validationTooltip05">Zip</label>
      <input type="text" class="form-control" id="validationTooltip05" required>
      <div class="invalid-tooltip">
        Please provide a valid zip.
      </div>
    </div>
  </div>
  <button class="btn btn-primary" type="submit">Submit form</button>
</form>

自定义

复选框

描述

<div class="custom-control custom-checkbox">
  <input type="checkbox" class="custom-control-input" id="customCheck1">
  <label class="custom-control-label" for="customCheck1">Check this custom checkbox</label>
</div>

通过 JavaScript(当没有可用的 HTML 属性来指定它)手动设置时,自定义复选框块还可以使用 :indeterminate 伪类。
描述

$('.your-checkbox').prop('indeterminate', true)

单选

描述

<div class="custom-control custom-radio">
  <input type="radio" id="customRadio1" name="customRadio" class="custom-control-input">
  <label class="custom-control-label" for="customRadio1">Toggle this custom radio</label>
</div>
<div class="custom-control custom-radio">
  <input type="radio" id="customRadio2" name="customRadio" class="custom-control-input">
  <label class="custom-control-label" for="customRadio2">Or toggle this other custom radio</label>
</div>

选择.custom-select

描述

<select class="custom-select">
  <option selected>Open this select menu</option>
  <option value="1">One</option>
  <option value="2">Two</option>
  <option value="3">Three</option>
</select>

指定大小custom-select-lg,custom-select-sm

范围选择.custom-range

描述

<label for="customRange3">Example range</label>
<input type="range" class="custom-range" min="0" max="5" step="0.5" id="customRange3">

指定大小min,max,步数step

file

描述

<div class="custom-file">
  <input type="file" class="custom-file-input" id="customFile">
  <label class="custom-file-label" for="customFile">Choose file</label>
</div>

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